GLP-1, what should I do with you?
Top 10 Drugs of diabetes treatment in 2019
According to the TOP10 ranking of diabetes drug sales in 2019, insulin and its analogues, GLP-1 receptor agonists and ddp4 inhibitors are in three parts of the world. However, the growth of the whole market is driven by GLP-1 receptor agonists. Except that DDP4 inhibitors are oral drugs, insulin and its analogs and GLP-1 receptor agonists are subcutaneous injections, and they have many things in common. Let's talk about them today.
Insulin and its analogues
Insulin is the only hormone in our body that can reduce blood sugar. It is suitable for patients with type I diabetes and type II diabetes, but there is a risk of hypoglycemia. Insulin analogues are modified on the basis of insulin structure, such as changing, increasing, decreasing, replacing amino acids or increasing fat chain, so as to achieve rapid or prolonged efficacy, stable hypoglycemia and reduce the incidence of hypoglycemia.
GLP-1 receptor agonists
Glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) is a kind of incretin produced by human intestine during eating. It can reduce blood sugar by inhibiting the secretion of glucagon by α cells and promoting the secretion of insulin by β cells (it also has other functions, such as controlling appetite, delaying gastric emptying, etc., which will not be discussed here. Please ask for Baidu if you are interested). Because GLP-1 can be rapidly metabolized by ddp-4 enzyme, in order to prolong its action time, we can modify its structure to achieve long-term or even ultra long-term effect, which is GLP-1 receptor agonist.
Insulin and its analogues and GLP-1 receptor agonists are polypeptides, which can reduce blood sugar, so many people are confused, but for our pharmaceutical people, it's a piece of cake: insulin and its analogues have two peptide chains of 51 amino acids in total, and GLP-1 analogues have a peptide chain of more than 30 amino acids. Most of them are obtained by fermentation, and the metabolic time of drugs in vivo can be changed by structural modification. The purification process is similar, especially the chromatography purification process, which usually requires ion exchange chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography. Here we summarize the difficulties and equipment scale of these two kinds of drug chromatography for your reference.
1. The complexity of fermentation product samples brings about a high difficulty in separation.
2. The structure of the impurity is similar to that of the sample, which requires higher column efficiency.
3. The complexity of separation process is also very strict to the accuracy and stability of the equipment.
4. Special solvent separation system brings severe test to the material selection of equipment.
Therefore, the chromatography equipment that can be used for insulin and GLP-1 purification is almost the highest standard in the industry.
Specifications of chromatography equipment in each phase
Lab scale equipment
BIO-Lab laboratory chromatography system and LCC manual chromatography column
Laboratory HPLC system
Bio-Pro Industrial chromatography system and chromatography column
Column ID: 100-600mm
CS-Prep series industrial Prep HPLC system
Column ID: 300-600mm
Bio-Pro industrial chromatography system & ACC automatic axial compression chromatography column
Column ID: 600-1600mm
CS-Prep series Industrial Prep HPLC system